This research project discusses disinformation in the European Union (EU) and Southeast Asia (SEA). The report examines the characterisation and context of disinformation, provides an overview of its creators and its circulation, where creation refers to production and its underlying motivations and circulation refers to the different ways it is disseminated, amplified and sustained, and rounds up with a discussion on foreseeable trends. It finds that disinformation is ultimately a national security problem, and any assessment of, and response to, disinformation must be formulated with developments in other domains.
- Disinformation is a perpetual challenge to national security made more complex by sharp power
- Factors outside the information domain provide the conditions by which disinformation and sharp power are exercised
- Regional and national vulnerabilities will continue to be exploited
- The widespread use of digital technologies in communications means that the information environment will become crucial battlegrounds for “like wars