This report examines the Kremlin-aligned information space in the period leading up to and immediately after this key juncture to draw lessons for assessing Russia’s actions in the future (now that we are rid of any illusions that Russia is anything other than a malign actor willing to use its military might to achieve its geopolitical goals), and to inform our own responses to those actions.

The framework consists of three standalone reports that were researched independently of one another, but which nevertheless established several striking common findings. These reports, produced by a range of experts in strategic communications and Russian information activity, mix qualitative and quantitative elements and collectively analyse hundreds of hours of television programming, thousands of government press statements and press releases, and millions of Telegram posts, with a focus on messaging aimed at domestic Russian audiences.