A Review Essay by Gary Buck 

The Book of Why Judea Pearl, Dana Mackenzie. Basic Books, 2018 

Measuring Social Change: Performance and Accountability in a Complex World Alnoor Ebrahim. Stanford Business Books, 2019 

Keywords—Measurement of Effect, causality, strategic communications, information operations, assessment strategy 

About the Author 

Dr Gary Buck is an Applied Psychologist and heads the Research and Insight team at M&C Saatchi World Services. He has served in military IO roles in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Iraq.