A Review Essay by Vera Michlin-Shapir

Information Wars: How We Lost the Global Battle against Disinformation and What We Can Do About It. Richard Stengel. London: Grove Press, 2020.

Beyond Post-Communication: Challenging Disinformation, Deception and Manipulation. Jim Macnamara. New York: Peter Lang, 2020.

The Disinformation Age: Politics, Technology and Disruptive Communications in the United States. W. Lance Bennet and Steven Livingston. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020.

Keywords—disinformation, strategic communications, strategic communication, information campaigns, influence operations, information war.

About the Author

Dr Vera Michlin-Shapir is an expert on the impact of global trends on Russian domestic transformations and Russia’s media, as well as on foreign and defence policies. She worked at the Israeli National Security Council, Prime Minister’s Office, 2010–16, and was a Research Fellow at the Israeli Institute for National Security Studies, 2016–20. She holds a PhD from Tel Aviv University and MPhil in Russian and East European Studies from St Antony’s College, University of Oxford.