A Review Essay by Tara Flores and Philip Hall 

AI Super-Powers: China, Silicon Valley and the New World Order Kai-Fu Lee. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2018 

The Great Firewall of China: How to Build and Control an Alternative Version of the Internet James Griffiths. Zed Books, 2019 

Digital Democracy, Analogue Politics: How the Internet Era is Transforming Politics in Kenya (African Arguments) Nanjala Nyabola. Zed Books, 2018 

KeywordsAfrica, closed networks, data privacy, Splinternet, strategic communications, China, internet regulation, Facebook, Great Firewall 

About the Authors 

Tara Flores is an Associate Consultant at Portland Communications where she advises governments and multinational companies across Africa on strategic communications campaigns and crisis management. 

Philip Hall is a Partner at Portland Communications and leads the company’s specialist disputes practice. A former lawyer, Philip advises clients involved in crises, conflict, or complex litigation across the world.